TPM (Total Productive Maintenance)

We want to achieve maximum equipment effectiveness and it's through employee involvement. That means management, operators, and maintenance. It's not just about maintenance, it's about getting everyone involved.

We want to change the way people think about maintenance. We want to shift the thinking from "I operate the machine, you fix it" ​to treating the machine as if you own it.


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When you save up and purchase a brand new car, how did you treat the car when you first ​had it?

With this new car, how often  did you eat and drink in it? What about washing the car and keeping it clean?

​With that same car, 5 years later, how often did you wash the car then? Or kept it clean?

Probably not as clean as when you first bought the car.​

Knowing that's human nature, what about our equipment in the plant?​ Are they looking and acting like a car off the lot or are they acting like they have had the car after 5 years.

If we treat our equipment well, others will treat them well.​


Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) is a large entryway to equipment maintenance that yearns to overcome better assembly by creating:

  • No disruptions
  • No pauses or breaks
  • No bugs
  • Protected working environment

No Calamities

TPM reiterates proactive and dedicated maintenance to increase the viable efficiency of equipment. It dims the perception between the parts of production and maintenance by establishing a firm priority on leading operators to help preserve their equipment.

The application of a Total Productive Maintenance curriculum organizes a shared responsibility for equipment that heartens larger involvement by plant floor employees. In suitable environments this may advance production which leads to faster up time, downsizing cycle times, and depleting defects.

Conventional TPM

The standard path to Total Productive Maintenance, created in the 1960s, consisted of 5S as a base and eight supporting actions, known as pillars.

The 5S Foundation

The 5S foundation (outlined below) makes up the TPM modal as well as eight aiding actions.

The objective of 5S is to organize a work environment that is hygienic and productive. It is made of five building blocks:

  • Sort (Deplete all that is not necessary for the workspace)
  • Set in Order (Sort the rest of the items)
  • Shine (Clean and audit the work area)
  • ​Standardize (Set standards for the previous 4 steps)
  • Sustain (safeguard the standards to be done on a regular basis)

5S makes an infrastructure for properly-ran equipment and should be taught as such. For example, in more clean workspaces, tools and pieces are more accessible, and it is clearer to identify new issues such as fluid exposure, metal deposits, and material leakage from sudden mileage, subtle cracks in instruments, etc.

Yuzuro Ito

"Machines and Equipment are the hearts of our offices and factories"

The 8 Pillars

The 8 Pillars of Total Productive Maintenance are more concentrated on dedicated and protected performances for fixing equipment accuracy. They are:

  • Autonomous Maintenance
  • Planned Maintenance
  • Quality Maintenance
  • Focused Improvement
  • Early Equipment Management
  • Training and Education
  • Safety, Health, and Environment
  • TPM in Administration


Presentation to OEE

Overall Equipment Effectiveness, also known as OEE, is a measurement that locates the amount of premeditated production pace that is productive. It was created to back up TPM actions by precisely tracking development towards approaching production goals.

An OEE score of…

100% is an accomplished production.

85% is world-class for distinct manufacturers.

60% is average for distinct manufacturers.

40% is standard for manufacturers that do not have TPM and/or lean initiatives.

OEE is composed of three elemental pieces. Each of which outlines one of the objectives of TPM arranged at the start of this proposition, and which goes into detail about a various category of productivity cost.

The components are:

  • Availability, which works towards the No Stops goal
  • Performance, which works towards the No Equipment Running Slowly or Stopping Frequently goal
  • Quality, which works towards the No Defects goal

For an entire continuance of OEE, not limited to advice on how to measure Availability, Quality, Performance, and OEE stops at the devoted OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness) tab.

As can be seen from the list above, OEE works in unison with the TPM objectives of No Breakdowns (which is gauged by Availability), No Equipment Running Slowly or Stopping Frequently (which is gauged by Performance), and No Defects (which is measured by Quality).

It is necessary to measure OEE to disclose and evaluate productivity costs and to form measurements and track development emerging from Total Productive Maintenance initiatives.

Assets of Automated OEE Tracking

Individually calculating OEE is a good approach to begin with. It can be accomplished physically on paper or with a spreadsheet, with only five segments of data are necessary. These segments are Stop Time, Planned Production Time, Perfect Cycle Time, Good Count, and Total Count. Achieving manual OEE calculations better reinforces the basic concepts and contribute a more in-depth knowledge of OEE.

Also, there are great uses to quickly changing to automated OEE data collection:

  • Accurate Stop Time Tracking
  • Keep Track of Cycles that are Slow and Frequent Stops
  • Operator Focuses on Equipment and Not Paperwork
  • Results Updated in Real Time

Organizing the Ideal OEE Goal

An intriguing challenge is setting up a “stretch” goal for OEE. The best way of doing so is called Ideal or the “Best of the Best.” It works by:

  • Track OEE (including performance, availability, and quality) for the required equipment for one month. Be sure to collect the data by shift.
  • Analyze every shift data, observing the highest individual conclusion for performance, activity, and quality in all shifts (for example, the best quality score across every shift, the best availability score across every shift, and so on).
  • Multiply the leading individual outcome together to predict an Ideal OEE score.

This recently predicted “Best of the Best” or Ideal OEE score shows the stretch goal – received from the leading results obtained from month to month for performance, availability and quality.

Perceiving the 6 Large Losses

The OEE loss divisions, which includes quality, performance, availability loss, can be split down into the 6 Large Losses. These are the most common instigators of productivity loss in manufacturing. The 6 Large Losses are instrumental because they are common in an application for distinct manufacturing, and contribute a well-built framework for brainstorming, locating, and depleting waste.

The Six Big Losses

  • Unplanned Stops: unscheduled maintenance, tool failure, overheating
  • Setup and Adjustments: setup, shortage of materials, warm up
  • Small Stops: jams, adjustments, blockages
  • Equipment Running Slowly: wrong setting, wear, alignment issues
  • Production Defects: scrap, rework
  • Reduced Yield: scrap, rework


A more profound way to get an easier understanding of Total Productive Maintenance is to do a walkthrough of an application example. This part demonstrates a guided roadmap for easy and understandable TPM applications.

Step One – Recognize Pilot Area

For this part, the objective equipment for the initial TPM plan can be selected. There are three different methods of approaching this. You can select equipment that is:

  • Easiest to Improve
  • Constraint/Bottleneck
  • Most Problematic

Extra Information for Better Understanding:

For companies with less TPM experience and/or advocacy, the better pick is usually the equipment that is easier to improve.

For a business with stronger Total Productive Maintenance experience and/or advocacy, the better pick is the equipment categorized as Constraint/Bottleneck. The choice to minimize possible risk is by increasing temporary stock and ensuring that unexpected stop time can be accepted.

Teams often lean towards picking the equipment that causes the most problems and would not be a smart choice unless that equipment also falls into the Constraint/Bottleneck category.

To establish a wider base of attributes for the TPM project, include the entire field of designated employees in the choice development and allow the members of that group to join in the equipment selection process.

After the pilot range has been selected, lead a local center focus for the assignment where plans and progress can update and be regularly posted.

Step Two – Rehabilitate Equipment to Optimal Operating Condition

During this step, your equipment will be prepared and cleaned for the new and improved operation. In the second step, we will introduce two new concepts: 5S and Autonomous Maintenance.

Firstly, a 5S program that involves operators and maintenance workers should be implemented. Use this as the basis for your program:

  • Photograph: Take “before” pictures of the current equipment and area. Hang them up on the project board.
  • Strip the Area: Remove unused tools, debris, and other unnecessary items from the area.
  • Organize: Organize the tools and components that are left onto shadow boards.
  • Clean Up: Clean thoroughly the equipment and the whole surrounding area.
  • Photograph: Take “after” pictures of the newly improved and clean version of the equipment area. Hang them on the project board.
  • Checklist: Make the equipment area its own basis 5S checklist.
  • Audit: Schedule an audit periodically to ensure the 5S checklist is being utilized properly. While doing the audit, update your checklist as necessary to remain relevant. Be positive to keep spirits high.

Next, you will need to implement an Autonomous Maintenance program. Use input from operators and maintenance personnel to determine who can perform which tasks. Some easy training may be necessary.

Use this outline to create your Autonomous Maintenance program:

  • Inspection Points: Identify and make note of all inspection points. Make a map of all the inspection points.
  • Visibility: If inspection points are hidden by opaque guarding, replace it with transparent guarding, only if it is safe to do so.
  • Set Points: Identify and make note of every set point and their settings.
  • Lubrication Points: Identify and make note of every lubrication point. Organize lubrication for previously planned stops.
  • Operator Training: Train all operators to alert line supervisors of any anomalous conditions.
  • Create Checklist: Make an Autonomous Maintenance checklist for tasks related to inspection, set points, lubrications, and other maintenance things.
  • Audit: Schedule an audit periodically to ensure your Autonomous Maintenance checklist is being utilized properly. Update the checklist as necessary.

Step Three – Begin to Measure OEE

During step three, you will be putting a system in place that will track OEE progress for specific equipment. You can either implement a manual or automated system. The scope of this system, however, must track unplanned stop times and reasons.

For a majority of equipment, unplanned stop time causes the largest losses. It is highly recommended to keep track of and categorize unplanned stops. This will help to create a clear image of unproductive time. You may also want to create a section for uncategorized stop time for when you do not know what caused it. This is a crucial step to take, especially if you are manually tracking your OEE. This will improve efficiency and give operators a safe choice when the reason for stopping is unclear.

You will need to gather data for two weeks at minimum in order to determine frequent reasons for unplanned stop time and how those stops impact the workplace. Go over the data each shift to maintain its accuracy.

Step Four – Confront Outstanding Losses

During step four, we will address the major sources of unproductive time. The TPM’s Focused Improvement concept, or Kaizen, is also introduced in this step.

In order to address the major losses, you will need to:

  • Select Loss: Choose one loss to focus on using your equipment-specific OEE and your stop time data. The loss your choose should be the one causing the most unplanned stops.
  • Create Team: Build a cross-functional team of four to six employees to address the loss. Choose the employees with the most knowledge and experience.
  • Collect Information: Gather details on the problem’s symptoms. This includes observations, photos, and any other pertinent evidence.
  • Organize: Coordinate a problem-solving meeting to determine the cause, judge the evidence, and determine the best fixes.
  • Schedule: Set aside planned stop time to try out the best fixes.
  • Restart: Begin the process again and investigate the effectiveness of the new fixes. If successful, update procedure changes and start with the next biggest loss. If not, gather more information and plan another problem-solving meeting.

OEE data should still be looked over during every shift. This will help you to check on the progress of losses that have previously been addressed and keep track of overarching productivity improvements.

Step Five – Introduce Dynamic Maintenance Procedures

During the final step, you will be incorporating your new maintenance techniques into the maintenance program.

First, determine which components need the most proactive maintenance like:

  • Components that Wear: Figure out which components receive the most use and wear. Replace these with versions that are low to no wear.
  • Components that Fail: Determine which component fail regularly.
  • Stress Points: Use vibration analysis to determine which stress points are the weakest.

Secondly, create your initial maintenance intervals:

  • Wear Based: Determine the current level of wear and the baseline for replacement intervals.
  • Predicted Failure Based: Determine a baseline interval for components that are predicted to fail.
  • Time-Based: Make a Planned Maintenance Schedule that includes replacing every one of the components that were previously determined to be in danger of wearing or failing. Use run time and not calendar time for scheduling these replacements.
  • Work Order Based: Initiate a general process for creating Work Orders based on your Planned Maintenance Schedule.

Lastly, make a system for receiving feedback in order to optimize maintenance intervals:

  • Component Log: Make a log sheet for each failure and wear-prone component. On this sheet, include every time the part is replaced and the condition it was in when replaced.
  • Monthly Audit: Plan to do a monthly Planned Maintenance audit. Check that the schedule is followed and log sheets are maintained. Also, go over new entries in the log and make changes where necessary.
  • Maintenance Interval Adjustments: When an unscheduled component must be replaced, also change the maintenance interval to better reflect real usage.
  • Component Analysis: Use the information gathered from vibration analysis to display arising problems.


We just finished going over the step by step Simplified Roadmap for implementing Total Productive Maintenance. You may be asking yourself, what is the next step?

There are additional activities that you can do that do not fit in the Simplified Roadmap we outlined. They are Quality Maintenance, Early Equipment Management, Safety, Health, and Environment, and TPM in Administration.

The dilemma then becomes when to introduce each of these four new activities. When these activities should be introduced should be based whatever the most urgent issue is.

For example:

  • Quality Maintenance should be introduced when…

    One of the biggest issues facing the company is quality, no matter if this is the result of customer concerns or internal concerns

  • Early Equipment Management should be introduced when…

    There is new equipment being installed or designed.

  • Safety, Health, and Environment should be introduced when…

    The company does not have a Safety, Health, and Environment program or would benefit from incorporating TPM into that plan.

  • TPM in Administration should be introduced when…

    One of the biggest issues facing the company is administrative troubles.


Perhaps the greatest difficulty a company can face is how to attain sustainable improvement. This process involves both reaching short-term goals and maintaining those successes over a long period of time. In this section, we will outline four different techniques that can be used to reach sustainable improvement. They are:

  • Engaging your Employees
  • Achieving Early Success
  • Utilize Active Leadership
  • Always Be Evolving

Employee engagement is where it all begins as this is vital for both short and long term successes. One effective method of ensuring your employees are engaged is by creating a joint vision of the company’s future. Explain what the improved state of the company will be and how it will be beneficial for the employees. Doing this will foster the motivation needed to succeed. Noticing and rewarding the desired behavior is yet another useful technique. For example, this may include providing a trophy or a gift certificate to those who consistently make an effort towards the company’s TPM goals.

By succeeding early on, you can build up momentum behind your movement. This will help to keep your initiative on track for the long term. In contrast, if you have attempted to enact your initiative and people see it as a failure, it will be harder to convince them to implement it again in the future.

You will want to have people in positions of leadership who are dedicated to implementing the initiative and want to see if succeed. These leaders should be using their words and actions to stress the importance of Total Productive Maintenance or TPM regularly. By continually voicing support and reminding employees of the initiative, they will be preventing employees from moving back into their old methods of working. Active leadership continually breathes new life into the initiative which will, over time, reflect in the employees.

If your initiative is always evolving and improving, then it will ensure that employees will not become bored and the initiative will not become bland. You always want your initiative to be interesting and exciting. Constantly growing and improving also ensures that your plan will survive for the long term be always adapting to new environments and challenges.

Author: Eric Raio

Eric Raio is one of the founders of Factory Solutions. When he isn't plotting new ways to create awesome software. He likes to geek out about flying drones and technology.

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